Thursday, December 6, 2007


By : Dr. Stephen A. Kells, Assistant Professor, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota
Length : 16 Page
File Type : Acrobat (PDF)
File Size : 482 KB

This white paper include
- Introduction to Bed bugs
"With these feeding and hiding behaviors, Bed bugs can produce a well established infestation that may be difficult to control!"
- Bed bugs identification
- Inspection
- Control Procedures (Wrok Efficiently, Vacuuming, Steam and each item to steam)
- Follow up inspections
- Table of available insecticides for use against Bed bugs (Active Ingredient, Product Name, Form, Relative to Bed bugs)

Read This White Papper

Wednesday, December 5, 2007

Public Health must declare bedbug war

Joe Fiorito

There are bedbugs in a Toronto Community Housing Corp. apartment building near the Eglinton West subway station. Mary O'Neil, a tenant, was telling me that she was recently bitten and had an allergic reaction; her arm swelled up and she had to go to the emergency room of a nearby hospital. The stress, she thinks, triggered an epileptic seizure shortly afterwards.

Tell me you think bedbugs are not a health hazard.

Diane Belfiore lives in the same building. She said, "There is a gentleman here who was sleeping on his balcony all summer because of the cockroaches and the bedbugs." The balcony is not an option for him now that the weather has turned.

Tell me you think bedbugs are not a health hazard.

The two women discovered, by knocking on doors, that bedbugs have spread. There was one infested apartment on one floor in June, and now there are several apartments on 10 or 11 floors of the 17-storey building. They also told me of a man in the building who washed himself with gasoline to rid his body of the bugs.

Tell me that bedbugs are not a health hazard.

I have heard about these vicious little bloodsuckers from people who live, not just in social housing, but in apartment buildings and houses, in neighbourhoods good and bad, all over town and across the GTA.

I have also written about the plans of Toronto Community Housing Corp. to deal with the problem. TCHC hopes to be able to respond to any complaint within 48 hours; they hope to spray any infested unit within a week or two of the complaint; they are spending a million dollars a year on pest management, including not only bedbugs but mice, rats and roaches. That all sounds so reasonable.

I am sick of reasonable people.

You cannot be reasonable while pests are sucking your blood. The problem is spreading like flames all over town. Where are the people who will deal with this problem as if they were firefighters in front of a burning building?

You think it's too expensive to declare all-out war on bugs? What is the cost of doing nothing?

Mary O'Neil shook her head. She said, "We're talking to some lawyers. I don't know if they're going to take it to the housing tribunal." I hope they do.

Tenants in the U.S. are beginning to launch lawsuits against landlords. No reason why we shouldn't catch up.

Diane said, "I shouldn't have to be scared. The social club we started here has stopped. People don't want to go out. They are staying behind their doors." In other words, they are afraid of catching or spreading bugs. Let me tell you that social isolation is a serious health problem.

Diane said, "A lot of people don't have families. The social club was an outing for them. You really want to know what the problem is? Come, walk the building, knock on a few doors, ask people what's going on."

There, right there: If Public Health now intends to learn about the bedbug problem, let them start with Mary and Diane. Let them also get a list of community housing addresses from the reasonable people at TCHC. Let Public Health start, right now, by walking around, knocking on doors, talking to tenants.

While they're at it, let them also investigate the work of care providers in social housing: I know of one instance in which a caregiver did not get help for an elderly woman, helpless and in the early stages of dementia, who was being eaten alive because her apartment was infested.

Joe Fiorito usually appears Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

The Bedbug Chronicles

The Bedbug Chronicles: Part 1
Day 1

Obviously we are embarrassed. There is no other appropriate attitude to have, though our embarrassment loses it's genuine quality through endless repetition. I declare our plight to anyone with a passing interest like an alcoholic seeking forgiveness.

"My roommates and I discovered bedbugs...
Read Post

The Bedbug Chronicles: Part 2
Day 7
What is shocking about bedbug veterans is the sense of inevitable defeat they have. I have now spoken with three people who had bedbugs at some point. The first said: "don't listen to anything but fumigation. There is no solution but to poison everything." The second: "I...
Read Post

The Bedbug Chronicles: Volume 3
Day 13
Quarantine is a frustrating experience for anyone. And, obviously, much more so for people who have some awful disease that will probably kill off most of humanity. I don't have one of those diseases, so it's probably not fair to complain. Still, it would have been nice...
Read Post

The Bedbug Chronicles: Volume 4
Nicholas Brown | Posted October 31, 2007 | Living
Read More: Bed Bugs, Bedbugs, Dealing With Bed Bugs, Facts About Bedbugs, How To Get Rid Of Bedbugs, Living With Bedbugs

The men also particularly loathed bedbugs, and sometimes, on long, tedious winter evenings the whole ward would be turned upside down in an effort to get rid of them. And although, apart from the unpleasant smell, everything in the ward was as clean as it could be on the surface,...
Read Post

Bedbug Chronicles 5
Day 27
The score so far is 0-0. The bedbugs have not forced us out, but I am pretty sure they too are still here.

I have little faith that our second spraying has gone any better than the first. The exterminator who came in seemed stunned by...
Read Post

The Bedbug Chronicles: Part 6
Day 34
I have moved from denial, to anger, to depression (I skipped bargaining), to acceptance, and then back to anger. The five stages of tragedy may not account adequately for my anger.

We are now past New York's official deadline to be rid of these creatures. Bedbugs...
Read Post

The Bedbug Chronicles: Part 7
Day 47
Sprayings four and five have come and gone and we are still plagued by bugs. They haunt our furniture like guerillas, waiting for nightfall before conducting feeding raids that leave me squirming and sleep deprived. Our apartment, like our government, is plagued by insurgents.

My bedroom/office...
Read Post

The Cost of Bedbugs

By Kerry Miller
Miller is a reporter with in New York .

Hotels and rental housing are hit by a resurgence in bedbug infestation—and lawsuits are proving it's not a problem that can be swept under the rug

Rosemary Salinas is a property supervisor for five apartment buildings in San Francisco. The first time she saw a bedbug was in 2004, when one of the tenants in a trendy Marina District building complained about itchy bites from tiny bugs that looked like ticks. Salinas hired a pest control company to treat the unit, the tenant moved out, and that was that—or so she thought.

Only months later did she find out that the primary infestation was actually in the apartment next door and that the bedbugs had spread into the walls, the hallways, and four other apartments in the 28-unit building. Salinas estimates the cleanup cost upwards of $40,000 all told, including a $9,000 payout to one tenant who threatened to sue.

"It was a nightmare," she says. And it's an increasingly common one. Although the bloodsucking parasites all but disappeared from the U.S. in the 1950s, thanks largely to the now-banned pesticide DDT, pest control companies say bedbug infestations have escalated dramatically over the past decade. Pest control professionals say they've found bedbugs in hospital waiting rooms, movie theaters, schools, on public buses, airplanes, and ships. So far, hotels, nursing homes, and apartment buildings have been among the businesses hardest hit by the nationwide bedbug resurgence.

Bedbugs are more of a nuisance than a health risk. While everyone shudders at the thought of bloodsucking parasites feeding on them at night, bedbugs don't carry any known diseases, and some people don't even react to bedbug bites at all. But because the pests are difficult to get rid of, an infestation can exact a real toll.
Not a Sanitation Issue

Salinas now issues regular notices in every building she supervises reminding tenants to call management immediately if they suspect a bedbug infestation. Still, the property owners she has talked to haven't been eager to do the same. "They don't want anybody to suspect that they have them, or to think that they could have them," she says.

Rental property owners aren't the only ones with that attitude. In a statement on its Web site, the American Hotel & Lodging Assn.—an industry group that co-hosted an international bedbug symposium last fall—says the resurgence of bedbugs in the U.S. has "had a minimal impact on the vast majority of hotels, which maintain state-of-the-art sanitation and adhere to strict standards of cleanliness," adding, for good measure: "Bedbugs are brought into hotels by guests; it is not a hotel sanitation issue."

It's true that bedbugs aren't a hygiene or sanitation issue, per se. Unlike roaches or rats, bedbugs thrive even in the cleanest five-star hotels. But the AHLA's definition of "minimal impact" is open to interpretation. A study by the Steritech Group, a commercial and institutional pest management company, found that nearly 25% of the 700 hotels it tracked over a three-and-a-half year period between November, 2002, and April, 2006, required treatment for bedbugs, though of the 76,000 hotel rooms in the study, fewer than 1% were found to be infested. But the public stigma that bedbugs carry makes the line between discretion and transparency a delicate one to tread.

"The hotel industry, property managers, universities—nobody wants to talk about bedbugs," says Michael Potter, a University of Kentucky entomologist and bedbug authority. But some have been taking steps to address the problem quietly.

Mum's the Word

Two years ago, James Bell found that hoteliers weren't interested in Protect-a-Bed's bedbug-proof mattress encasement, until the product was rebranded as "allergy-free (, 8/13/07)". Now, Allerzip's "BugLock" enclosure is mentioned on packaging but doesn't appear anywhere on the label that guests might see. (Allerzip is a Protect-a-Bed brand.) "No one wants to check into a hotel that advertises bedbugs," Bell says.

K-9 Bedbug Detection Services does a brisk business using trained beagles to sniff out bedbugs in around 100 of New York and New Jersey's toniest hotels, nursing homes, and apartment buildings on a quarterly basis, at a cost of $900 to $1,500 per inspection. Although at least one downtown hotel displays its "bedbug alert free" certification in the lobby, Vice-President Jeffrey Kazen says the public's anxiety about bedbugs means that most of K-9's clients don't wish to publicize that they use the company's services. When inspecting hotels, handlers typically tell hotel guests the dogs are checking for mold. At nursing homes, they blend in with the pets present for animal therapy. "You don't want people to know what you're looking for, because then every rash, every itch becomes bedbugs," he says. "You keep it quiet, you take care of the problem, and hopefully that'll be the end of it."

When word of a bedbug infestation does spread, the threat of a lawsuit can make a difficult situation much, much worse. Carl Morello, assistant vice-president for loss control at Sequoia Insurance in Monterey, Calif., says he first started seeing bedbug-related claims from property owners two years ago. He says a likely factor is the increased publicity, such as a widely reported $20 million lawsuit filed against a hotel in the Catskills.

Then there are other costs: the negative publicity, erosion in brand value, and drop in business that can result from a poorly handled infestation. Damage control (, 10/17/07) is tricky since unhappy bedbug victims can easily spread word of infestations online via blogs or user-submitted travel review sites such as TripAdvisor (EXPE). "How many people hear about a hotel that had bedbugs and don't stay there because of it? You just don't know," Morello says. Last year an Australian study estimated that bedbugs cost the Australian tourism industry $75 million annually. (No such estimates are available for the U.S.)
Out-of-Court Settlements

To avoid the hassle of a lawsuit, many property owners prefer to settle bedbug claims out of court. Although settlements are typically maintained under a confidentiality agreement, attorneys say the average bedbug settlement is much less than the ones that make headlines, such as the reported $150,000 that Helmsley Enterprises paid a guest in 2004. But the mental anguish bedbugs inspire can also lead victims to seek claims well above the cost of replacing a suitcase or paying a doctor's bill. "If I'm trying to settle a case, I might be offering $8,000, $10,000, and the person wants millions," says Christian Hardigree, a lawyer and professor of hospitality law at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. "They feel violated."

Morello says most hotel guests who encounter bedbugs will be satisfied with an apology, a clean room, and maybe a refund. But getting rid of bedbugs is still pricey. Since DDT was banned, pest control professionals don't have many effective chemicals to kill bedbugs, which feed only on blood and aren't attracted to baits or traps. That makes finding and destroying the tiny bugs and their eggs meticulous, time-consuming work that typically requires repeat visits.

To treat infested units in her San Francisco building, Salinas hired a company to empty each apartment and freeze the contents for 48 hours. (Extreme temperatures are one of the few reliable ways to kill bedbugs.) The cost: about $2,000 per unit.

Hardigree says some hotels she has consulted for have spent more than $50,000 to $60,000 to treat full-blown bedbug infestations. Most exterminators use a class of chemicals called pyrethroids in combination with nonchemical methods (heat, cold, vacuuming, steaming). But the costs that pest control companies charge and the practices they use can vary widely. "If a hotel room is infested, in theory, we should be treating all the adjoining rooms," says Douglas Stern, owner of Secaucus (N.J.) pest control company Stern Environmental Group, meaning the rooms above and below and well as on either side. "But a lot of hotels don't want to spend the money." And even without cutting corners, no amount of money can guarantee that a building is truly "bed-bug free."
No Guarantees

Bedbugs can survive for up to a year without a blood meal, entomologists say, so taking a hotel room out of service for a few days or even a few months after it has been treated won't necessarily help. "I can say with 99% certainty that they're gone, but the reality is we don't know until somebody sleeps there," says Stern. Even a clean sweep by a bedbug-sniffing dog is no assurance that a few bedbugs haven't hunkered down somewhere, just waiting for the next warm-blooded host to come along—or that some new bedbugs won't hitchhike their way in tomorrow.

But there are proactive steps property owners can take, such as installing bedbug-proof mattress covers, that can help create an "inhospitable environment" for the critters, making them easier to detect and contain quickly. At a Las Vegas hotel that is Hardigree's client, standard procedure for bedbugs now involves getting permission to dispose of and replace the guests' luggage with new suitcases purchased in bulk through the manufacturer. Before moving to a new room, guests are asked to take a shower and are provided with a track suit and slippers to wear while their clothes are being dry-cleaned.

Hardigree admits that for managers with an eye on the bottom line, such precautionary measures can be a hard sell until an actual bedbug problem arises to force the issue. Training the housekeeping staff to do routine bedbug checks sounds like a good idea, for example, but realistically, "How thorough can they be if they've got 20 minutes to clean an entire room?" she asks.

Still, given the litigious environment hoteliers face, Hardigree says every facility should have some kind of bedbug action plan in place, even if they have to raise their room rates to implement it. In a 2003 case, a Chicago jury awarded $382,000 in punitive and compensatory damages to two plaintiffs bitten by bedbugs in a motel room that they alleged management knew was infested but failed to treat. In 2004 a New York judge awarded a tenant a 45% rent abatement for a six-month period, ruling that the apartment's bedbug infestation constituted an "intolerable condition," notwithstanding the landlord's efforts to exterminate them. Insurance may not cover all the costs of litigation—punitive damages, for example, are typically not insurable—and many insurers won't pay claims if managers were clearly negligent in dealing with infestations on their properties, Sequoia Insurance's Morello says.
Proliferating Lawsuits

Bedbug-related lawsuits have also been filed against rental furniture companies, cruise lines, dry cleaners, laundromats, and universities—and not just over the bugs themselves. In a case pending against Wichita State University, the plaintiffs claim the pesticides sprayed to get rid of the bugs made them sick.

"It's a mess," says Timothy Wenk, an attorney who represents landlords and property owners in civil litigation suits in New York City. Wenk says he expects the number of bedbug-related lawsuits to increase as the infestation spreads, including more landlords suing pest control companies and more bedbug victims suing public municipalities.

Hardigree has fielded phone calls from property owners interested in putting an addendum to lease agreements holding tenants responsible for bedbug infestations. Others are interested in tweaking the language of contracts with pest-control companies so they can sue if the bedbugs return. (Her response to both: "You can put that language in, but I can't tell you it would be upheld by a court.") In any case, bedbugs aren't a problem that can be solved by the wave of a gavel.

Source :

Sunday, November 18, 2007

Bed Bugs Fact Sheet

According to statistics from the National Pest Management Association, bed bugs are on
the rise in America, having increased 500 percent over the last three years. Consequently,
hotels have become as proactive as possible in identifying infestations.

Bed Bug Growth in America
• 19 percent more pest elimination companies responded to bed bug calls in February 2004 than July 2003;
• Bed bug cases were reported in 40 states through February 2004;
• Ecolab Pest Elimination reports a 300 percent increase in bed bug service calls in the past five years.
• Ecolab has received more service calls in the first eight months of 2004 than in all of 2003.
• Pest control companies have been reporting the infestations not only in hotels, but in multi-family housing, apartments, and hospitals.

Bed Bugs: What Are They?
• Blood-feeding insects;
• Light-tan in color, turning dark-red or brown after feeding;
• About 1/4 inch long, flattened before feeding and swollen afterward;
• Easy to see with the naked eye, but difficult to find while hiding;
• Feed once a week on a sleeper’s exposed skin for several minutes at a time;
• Bites are painless and not felt by most people, but could leave a hard bump with a whitish center that can itch for many days;
• Parasites, but there is NO evidence they spread disease like other parasites;
• Able to survive up to 10 months between blood meals if necessary;
• Nocturnal;
• Attracted to carbon dioxide and body heat;
• Able to lay up to 500 eggs in one lifetime;
• Able to repopulate themselves and re-infest a room in just three to four months;
• Extremely mobile, can hide just about anywhere and be carried in anything;
• Create a sickly, sweet smell in an infested room;
• Can hide almost anywhere, including in upholstered furniture nightstands, headboards, bedding, lamps, picture frames and luggage.
• May also be found in unexpected places, like the telephone, behind electrical switch plates, under carpet edges or carpeting, light fixtures, housekeeping carts and folds of draperies or curtains.

A History of Bed bugs
• Pestered humans since pre-historic times;
• Many species found in the United States – human bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) is the most common;
• Mostly eradicated in the U.S. around World War II;
• Boomed in numbers within the last five years due to increased international travel, and less use of strong pest-killing products that controlled bed bugs for years.

As a guest:
• When returning from a trip, check your luggage and clothing.
• Vacuum suitcases after returning from a vacation.
• Check your bedsheets for tell-tale blood spots.
• If bed bug activity is discovered or suspected in your guestroom, contact the front desk immediately. The room will be put out of service until a pest elimination expert certifies it to be pest free.

The best prevention is daily inspection. Hotel staff should inspect rooms for bed bug activity every day by inspecting:
- guest room linens.
-mattress and box spring seams.
- headboards
- bedding.

• Staff should be looking not only for live insects, but also for cast skins or speckles of dried blood or excrement on furniture or in places where bed bugs hide.
• Hotel staff should do the following:
- vacuum rooms and accessories daily;
- inspect incoming furniture and wall hangings that may have been stored or warehoused; and
- inspect and repair loose wallpaper and cracks in baseboards to reduce areas where bed bugs can settle.

*Information provided by Ecolab Pest Elimination and the National Pest Management Association, Inc.

New Bed Bug Policy for New York Schools

News From

Bed bugs have gotten to be such a problem that New York City's schools now have a policy to deal with them. It's the first time any procedures have been officially established.

Principals must now notify parents in writing if the parasites are found in any schools.

Bedbugs are brought into schools on children's clothing. They tend to show up in cooler weather.

Last January and February, there were 72 reports of bugs at 43 schools, according to the Department of Education.

Bed bug Link

Readers share the bed bug nightmares

Bed bug increase bites in city

Report of bed bug infestations in the United States and Canada

SLIDESHOW: California Hotel Infested With Bed Bugs;s=1;dm=ss;p=news;w=400

Bed bugs invade Toronto

Story by Kelly Grant and Adam Huras

The city is declaring war on bed bugs.
Infestations of the tiny wingless insects have spread so swiftly across Toronto in the last few years -- one exterminator even described clients picking up bed bugs at hospitals -- that an East Toronto councillor yesterday asked the public health unit to study what it could do to eradicate the problem.

"[Bed bugs] are starting to migrate. They migrate not only in apartment buildings. I think that they're becoming a real big problem in the city of Toronto," Councillor Paula Fletcher said.

Ms. Fletcher asked the health unit to look at launching a bed-bug furniture pickup program, to investigate how other cities are tackling infestations, and to recommend how the city can prevent and control the insects.

Dr. David McKeown, the city's medical officer of health, will be among those attending a town hall meeting tomorrow night on the bed bug plague.

Sponsored by WoodGreen Community Services, an east-end not-for-profit group, the meeting will focus on what can be done to fight the insects? spread in the city's shelters, drop-in centres and social housing.

The problem, however, has spread well beyond publicly owned buildings, Toronto exterminators say.

"Business has easily increased 50% per year over the last five years. It has been tremendous," said Paul Bossio, general manager of Advantage Pest Control. "Five years ago bed bugs may be represented a maximum of 5% of our business. Now it's over 30% of it."

Carlo Panacci, the owner of Cain Pest Control, said that in 1999 he had only two calls the entire year to eliminate the quarter-inch bugs. Now he averages eight to 10 calls a day.

"I do more work with bed bugs than anything else, hands down. More bed bugs than roaches, more bed bugs than mice, easily," he said.

When his bed bug business first started to pick up, Mr. Panacci said most calls came from boarding houses.

Today the bugs do not discriminate. The problem has spread to apartments, hotels, hospitals and doctors' offices.

"I've had a woman coming back from the hospital with a brand new baby and said she picked them up at the hospital," Mr. Panacci said. "I've had doctor offices call me up saying they had a patient get out of the chair, and they're all over the chair."

Part of the city's challenge is that the pests fall into an enforcement grey area. Unlike mice, cockroaches and termites, which fall under the umbrella of the municipal licensing department, dealing with bed bugs is the responsibility of Toronto Public Health.

Reg Ayre, a manager in the healthy environments program at TPH, said the public health unit does not specifically track the scope of the bed bug problem. Instead, it offers advice on wiping out the bugs via the phone or visits, then keeps track of calls for advice from Torontonians.

Source :

Sunday, November 4, 2007

Hotel and Bed bugs

Before you are selecting a hotel, you may want to find information and reviews of the hotel that you want to go. Some guests who’ve had bed bugs problems report it on the internet, you can find a good hotel with search engine . But in the hotel have many room, a information that you're read may not true 100%. You may be unlucky selecting the bed bugs infest room and that room still not exterminate a bed bugs. I will suggest you how to check the bed bugs in your room before them feed your blood.

- Check the mattress peel back the bedsheets and check the mattress.

Bed bugs on mattress tag

Bed bugs on mattress seam

- Check the headboard removing and examining hotel bed headboard if possible.

Bed bugs on bed headboard

- Don't treat a bed bugs by yourself if you detect a bed bugs, you should inform hotel management and request new room.
- Check bed bugs of new room if you change to new room you should repeat the thorough inspection of any new or different room.
- Check you pack when you leave don't forget to check any item in you pack, because bed bugs can transport from the hotel to your home with cloth or baggage.

Bed bugs control with Chemical

Chemical control strategies often start by flushing bed bugs out from their hiding places by use of a natural or synthetic pyrethroid based aerosol spray. This is then followed by use of other insecticides inside the premises, including the treatment of beds and other furniture. Active ingredients approved for use against bed bugs in the UK under the Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 (COPR) are the following organophosphates: chlorpyrifos methyl, diazinon, fenitrothion, iodofenphos, pirimiphos-methyl and trichlorfon; and carbamates, bendiocarb and propoxur. These groups of chemicals act as nerve poisons which kill by inhibiting the nerve enzymne cholinesterase which disrupts the nervous system. More than half of these actives will have their licences revoked as part of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) review of all anticholinesterase compounds. This process began in September 1998 when data call-in letters were sent to approval holders. Because of lack of support the following substances chlorpyrifos-methyl, diazinon (which shows evidence of mutagenicity and evidence of embryotoxicity), iodofenphos, trichlofon and propoxur (a suspected human carcinogen) have had their licences revoked(1,2).
The synthetic pyrethroids alpha cypermethrin, bioallethrin, bioresmethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, d-phenothrin, permethrin, resmethrin, s-bioallethrin, tetramethrin and the OPs trichlorphon and fenitrothion are suspected of being endocrine disruptors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals may affect the balance of normal hormonal function of animals and are suspected of contributing to the decrease in male fertility, female reproductive problems, increases in prostate and breast cancer, and behavioural and developmental problems in children(3). The German Federal Environment Agency suspects deltamethrin of affecting sperm and the placenta and dimethoate of affecting sperm and prolonging pregnancy(4).
The botanicals registered for use in the UK (pyrethrins and pyrethrum extract) are the only pesticides that are not suspected endocrine disruptors or anticholinestease compounds.

1. PAN UK Active Ingredient Database, 1999.
2. List of active ingredients that have been approved for use against bed bugs, provided by the Health and Safety Executive 13/05/99 and personal communications 10/02/2000.
3. Environmental endocrine disruptors, A handbook of property data, Keith, L. H., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1997, 1232pp.
4. ENDS Report 290, March 1999, p28.

Source :

Thursday, November 1, 2007

Bed bugs treatment with non toxic

- You must be wash to eliminate any bed bug eggs and caulk any crack or hole. (Common bed bug live in cracks in the bed frame, window and door frames, under loose wallpaper, upholstered chairs and sofas, behind pictures)
- Bed bugs can easily climb wood surfaces to access a host, you can use the oil to block the bed bugs (Modify bed for anti bed bugs).
- Moving the bed away from any surfaces such as walls.
- Replaced or steam clean the Mattresses and wash the bedding with high temperatures raising temperatures to between 36ºC and 37ºC for an hour or so will probably eliminate an infestation, and prolonged exposure to temperatures of 0ºC to 9ºC will also kill off adults in a matter of hours.

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Tips For Selecting a Pest Control Professional

A good tip for selecting a professional from

  1. Always deal with a qualified and licensed pest management company. Consider asking to see the license or other credentials of the pest professional who comes to solve your pest problem.
  2. Evaluate companies that are members of national, state or local pest management associations.
  3. Consider an NPMA QualityPro company. Visit for more information.
  4. Ask friends and neighbors to recommend pest control companies they have used successfully and how satisfied they were with the service.
  5. Be wary of the operator who comes to your home uninvited and offers to give your house a free inspection for pests. He or she may try to scare you into authorizing immediate and costly treatments.
  6. If a sizable amount of money is involved, get bids from several pest management firms.
  7. Don't rush a decision. Since you are paying for professional knowledge as well as skillful application of pesticides, look for someone whose judgment you can trust.
  8. Before signing a contract, be sure to fully understand the nature of the pest to be exterminated, the extent of the infestation, and the work necessary to solve the problem.
  9. Find out if the pest control company has liability insurance to cover any damages to your house or furnishings during treatment.
  10. If a guarantee is given, know what it covers, how long it lasts, what you must do to keep it in force, and what kind of continuing control, prevention and management are necessary.
  11. Buy value, not price. Beware of bargains that sound too good to be true.
  12. Homeowners can call state pest control regulatory agencies for information regarding the status of pest management companies. In most states the regulatory agency is the State Department of Agriculture.

Friday, October 19, 2007

Bed Bug Killer Product [Bed bugs Product]

Bed Bug Killer
Kills Bed Bugs & Other Indoor Insects

This October, enjoy FREE ground shipping!

Are You Suffering with Bed Bugs?

Bed bugs are small nocturnal insects that feed on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded hosts. Bed bugs are generally active only at night, with a peak attack period about an hour before dawn, though given the opportunity, they may attempt to feed at other times of day.

Attracted by warmth and the presence of carbon dioxide, the bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow tubes. With one tube it injects its saliva, which contains anticoagulants and anesthetics, while with the other it withdraws the blood of its host. After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place. The bites cannot usually be felt until some minutes or hours later, as a dermatological reaction to the injected agents. Although bed bugs can live for up to 18 months without feeding, they typically seek blood every five to ten days.

Female bed bugs can lay up to five eggs in a day and 500 during a lifetime.

Our Fast-acting Bed Bug Killer is the Answer
Our Indoor Insect Killer is the fastest acting bed bug killer on the market today. Where the majority of products take days or even weeks to work, this kills bed bugs and other insects in minutes!

The combination of natural ingredients makes for a hard-hitting insecticide that is extremely effective and fast acting.

Plus, our Indoor Insect Killer is made from all natural ingredients. This means the Indoor Insect Killer is safe to use around children, pets, and throughout your home.

Why is Our Indoor Bed Bug Killer Better?

Our Bed Bug Killer has a pleasant citrus scent which is a distinct difference from other products you may find.
The Indoor Bed Bug Killer can either be used as a dust or as a wettable powder, and the active ingredients break down, leaving no residual contamination.
The Environmental Protection Agency classifies our Indoor Insect Killer as "Least Toxic". This is the same classification as table salt!

Our Bed Bug Killer is Proven to be Effective:

Fastest acting contact insecticide on the market
Kills any bed bugs or other insects that come in contact with it by paralyzing and dehydrating them
Pleasant citrus scent with no chemical odor
Feels like baby powder, but it's deadly to bed bugs
Ready to use 1-pound bottle

Safety Benefits:

99% natural - safer around people and pets with immediate access to treated areas
This easy-to-use powder can be used on carpets and fabrics and your bed
Vacuums easily and will not stain
Uses no harmful chemicals and has no known negative effect to people, pets, or plants


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Bed Bugs, Scabies, Lice, Mites, any Insect Eliminator and Treatment, all Natural Enzymes, Non-Toxic, Organic, USDA Ecologically Safe, Insect Eliminator, Treatment and Cleaner - (32 oz. Concentrate)

Product Features
  • Kleen Free Naturally is an organic, non-toxic, ecologically safe cleaner and bug eliminator.
  • Gets rid of: fleas, roaches, bedbugs, scabies, fire ants, mites, lice, fruit flies and many more types of bugs..
  • A unique organic enzymes formula specifically designed to eliminate pests and clean areas safely.
  • Used at Home and by Restaurants, Pest Control Companies, Hotels, Cleaning Professionals etc.

Product Description

Kleen Free Naturally is a proven biodegradable enzyme insecticide soap that is used world wide as a pest control (bio-pesticide) multi-purpose cleaner. We sell it in a concentrated (8 to 1 with water) and pre-mixed form, large and small quantities. Please contact: for more information. This revolutionary product is now available to the general consumer. Preformed enzymes have been used widely in restaurant and institutional settings for many years, due to their low toxicity and superior cleaning properties. They are also becoming widely accepted in the field pest removal, as enzymes leave no toxic residues and the enzymatic effect on the insect exoskeleton is quick and safe.

Customer Reviews
Carol L. Burgess "Carol Burgess" (San Diego, CA)

This product helps you control the insects that you can not see that some of us are very allergic too. Thank you for creating a product that controls these and that can be used on the human body without causing a bigger irratitation.


Enviro Services has been in the extermination business for over 25 years! We have an unlimited knowlege of Pest Control and have been offering 100% Guaranteed Satisfaction Service to all of our customers whether you are a hotel, hospital, small business or residential.

The Bedbug problem has risen by over 500% in the last 2 years alone in he city of New York. The problem is not an easy one to deal with or to erradicate. Many companys will promise to rid you of the problem immediately ....the truth is it takes a professional pest control implementation and a lot of effort by the customer after treatment

We are offering a special price right now of only $125* TO TREAT YOUR APARTMENT for complete Bedbug erradication (HOMES AND BUSINESES SLIGHTLY HIGHER) It requires us to spray a prescription chemical and educate the customer so that reintroduction will be limited.

please call mike at 718-568-8890 anytime for a phone consult

Bedbug populations creeping up again

After a 40-year lull, bedbugs are showing up in ever greater numbers across Canada, thanks in part to jet-setting travellers who accidentally import them from Asia and Africa.

Exterminator John Van of the Vancouver-based company BC Pest Control has treated 65 rooms in one hotel alone, as well as university dorms and private homes.

He says the number of bedbug calls to his office is 50 times what it was five years ago.

"It's virtually impossible to treat a place just once and have success," he said. "You'd have to do it at least two or three times."

The bugs hitch a ride in clothing and soft-sided suitcases, then make new homes in mattresses in hotels, university dorms and private homes as they wait for a warm-blooded victim upon which to feast.

Entomologist Judy Myers feels the bedbug problem is only going to grow, largely because of their ability to survive.

"If there's nobody around, they can live for up to a year without feeding," says the University of British Columbia professor. "They're hard to get rid of."

The approximately five-millimetre long insect is not a disease carrier, but is certainly a nuisance, causing itchy, painful welts to rise on bitten skin.

Some of the reasons bedbugs are so hard to kill:

* They can hide in cracks the thickness of a nickel where it's difficult for sprays to spread.
* Finding all the bugs and eggs can require multiple visits from an exterminator.
* They can hide in bedding, upholstery, carpet and clothing as well as mattresses.
* They emerge from their hiding spots only at night.
* A single female can lay up to 300 eggs, causing populations to grow and spread quickly.

Experts say the best way to prevent an infestation is to vacuum mattresses regularly and wash linens in hot water.

The problem has been popping up all across Canada in the past 18 months.

Tenants in a 21-storey Manitoba Housing complex in Winnipeg have been suffering from bites since an infestation began in April 2004.

And Toronto's bedbug population has been steadily rising, with infestations reported everywhere from upscale condominiums to homeless shelters.

Source : CBC News

Thursday, October 18, 2007

What are bed bugs?

What are bed bugs?
Bed bugs are insects. Cimex lectularius is the species most commonly found in homes. Adult bed bugs have oval-shaped bodies with no wings. Prior to feeding, they are about 1/4 inch long and flat as paper. After feeding, they turn dark red and become bloated. Eggs are whitish, pear-shaped and about the size of a pinhead. Clusters of 10-50 eggs can be found in cracks and crevices.

Bed bugs have a one-year life span during which time a female can lay 200-400 eggs depending on food supply and temperature. Eggs hatch in about 10 days.

There are currently no known cases of disease associated with bed bug bites. Most people are not aware that they have been bitten. People who are more sensitive to the bite can have localized allergic reactions. Scratching the bitten areas may lead to infection.

What do bed bugs feed on?

Bed bugs prefer to feed on human blood, but will also bite mammals and birds. Bed bugs bite at night, and will bite all over a human body, especially around the face, neck, upper torso, arms and hands. Bed bugs can survive up to six months without feeding. Both male and female bed bugs bite.

How do bed bugs get into my home?

Bed bugs are often carried into a home on objects such as furniture and clothing. Bed bugs can be found in areas such as:

* Seams, creases, tufts and folds of mattresses and box springs
* Cracks in the bed frame and head board
* Under chairs, couches, beds, dust covers
* Between the cushions of couches and chairs
* Under area rugs and the edges of carpets
* Between the folds of curtains
* In drawers
* Behind baseboards, and around window and door casings
* Behind electrical plates and under loose wallpaper, paintings and posters
* In cracks in plaster
* In telephones, radios, and clocks

Bed bugs can also travel from apartment to apartment along pipes, electrical wiring and other openings.

What can I do if I have bed bugs in my home?

The best method to deal with bed bugs is Integrated Pest Management (IPM), which combines a variety of techniques and products that pose the least risk to human health and the environment.

1. Consult with your local health department or a professional Pest Control operator to confirm that you have bed bugs.
2. Inspect your mattress and bed frame, particularly the folds, crevices and the underside, and other locations where bed bugs like to hide.
3. Use a nozzle attachment on the vacuum to capture the bed bugs and their eggs. Vacuum all crevices on your mattress, bed frame, baseboards and any objects close to the bed. It is essential to vacuum daily and empty the vacuum immediately.
4. Wash all your linens and place them in a hot dryer for 20 minutes. Consider covering your pillows and mattress with a plastic cover.
5. Remove all unnecessary clutter.
6. Seal cracks and crevices between baseboards, on wood bed frames, floors and walls with caulking. Repair or remove peeling wallpaper, tighten loose light switch covers, and seal any openings where pipes, wires or other utilities come into your home (pay special attention to walls that are shared between apartments).
7. Monitor daily by setting out glue boards or sticky tape (carpet tape works well) to catch the bed bugs. Closely examine any items that you are bringing into your home. Note: Furniture put out by someone else for garbage pick-up could be infested with bed bugs. Use caution.
8. Consult professional pest control services and discuss options that pose the least risk to humans and the environment.

Note: If you choose to treat the infestation with an insecticide, call a Professional Pest Control Service for more information. Use the least toxic product available and follow all manufacturers’ instructions.

Whether you choose Integrated Pest Management or insecticides, you may continue to see some living bed bugs for up to ten days. This is normal. If you continue to see a large number of bed bugs after two weeks, contact a professional pest control service.

For more information:

Toronto Public Health – Toronto Health Connection 416-338-7600
New York State Integrated Pest Management Program

No sleeping tight when hotel bedbugs bite

Bedbug infestations are more than an itchy problem for hotels across North America. They are becoming more expensive as at least one tourist is suing after she says she spent a night in an infested hotel bed.

"I received more than 650 bites," alleges Eunice Juarez, a tourist from Mexico who is suing a Los Angeles-area hotel.

It can take multiple visits from an exterminator to find all the bedbugs and eggs lurking in bedding and upholstery.
It can take multiple visits from an exterminator to find all the bedbugs and eggs lurking in bedding and upholstery.

Juarez said she stayed one night at the Marriott International in August, and claims that she and her two teenage sons went to the hospital instead of Disneyland.

"When she woke up, she was covered with blood," said Juarez's lawyer, Alan Schnurman. "The sheets were full of blood."

The approximately five-millimetre-long bedbug is not a disease carrier, but it is a nuisance, causing itchy, painful welts to rise on bitten skin. In some cases, the bites can become seriously infected.

One veteran exterminator in L.A. says that 20 years ago, he had few calls about bedbugs. But now pest-control companies are juggling jobs from panicked hoteliers across the country.

"They lose a lot of money because, you know, this is a tourist town," said David Rike, manager of Dewey Pest Control in L.A. "Sometimes we just tell them to just get rid of the bed."

The pests are hard to eradicate, and are enjoying a renaissance in part because they escape eco-friendly measures such as ant and cockroach traps that have replaced conventional bug sprays.

The bites are making for bleary-eyed, sleep-deprived guests at four-star hotels in many North American cities, and pest control experts say some travellers are taking the bugs home in their luggage.

Even if guests think their trip was bedbug-free, they advise people to unpack in the garage and launder their travel clothes quickly, in case the bugs hitched a ride.

Source :

Tuesday, October 9, 2007

How to Selecting Bed Bug Exterminator.

Why Bed Bug Exterminator?
Because professional bed bugs exterminator will have job instruction with how you should to do. They know about bed bugs habit, bed bugs life cycle, where bed bugs live, how to exterminate bed bugs and all process is safety for human.

But not all exterminators are well-know with exterminate a bed bugs. Select the bad exterminator you will pay for unnecessary stress or very dangerous if they fumigation with cyanogas (poison gases). You must select a professional who knows how to conduct proper bed bugs exterminate. Search the pest control professionals in your locations with National Pest Management Association.

The following information was written by Sean.
Sean is a Pest Control Operator and entomologist

Treating a Bed Bug Infestation: advice from a Pest Control Operator

I can not stress enough how important it is to do a bed bug treatment correctly right from the onset. The slighest misstep can literally make a solvable problem a nightmare.

All too often you get do it yourselfers that think they can do the job just as well as a licenced technician can. This is simply not the case 95% + of the time.

As I have said many times … leave this one to the pros.

The trick is for the general public to decipher who the pros are in their area. I will not lie to you, there are good companies and bad companies. There are also good companies with some bad individuals.

Two things to watch out for; underpricing and overpricing. Ask them what the job breaks down to on an hourly basis per technician that they are sending (some companies use two techs per job). This puts all companies on equal footing for comparison.

Underpricing means you will get what you pay for; poor service and inexperience.

Overpricing means that the company likely does not want to do bed bug jobs. They price so high that they are looking to discourage people from hiring them. They just plain can’t or do not want to do bed bug work.

Look for a company with middle of the road pricing. Check with the Better Business Bureau to see if they have received complaints recently. Ask the company to provide references from clients that have been satisfied with their bed bug work. Many companies will have letters of praise on hand.

Some other things to look for;

1) Do they offer a guarantee?
2) If so, what does it entail?

Keep in mind that many companies will NOT offer guarantees to hotels or multiunit dwellings because the chance of reinfestation is too great. If you live in an apartment ask what their guarantee is for a freestanding home. This will give you an idea of how confident they are about their work.

3) Do they have liability insurance?
4) If yes, how much does it cover?
If no … walk away.

5) Do they have dedicated bed bug technicians?
Many companies are now forming bed bug task forces if you will. These companies will likely have more experience.

6) How long do they expect the treatment to last?
A thorough bed bug treatment (inspection plus application) is going to take a minimum of two hours (based on a normal hotel sized room).

7) How many treatments does the price include? (Editor’s note: it should include at least two, spaced about two weeks apart).
8) Ask the company how many treatments it will take to rid the bed bugs.
If they say one … walk away.
If they say two-three they are being honest.
If they say several (3+) they likely are not doing the job right.

The last thing is that people need to realize that they are going to need to be bait for the treatment to be most successful. They essentially need to carry on their routine of sleeping in the bed, etc. This will maximize the chance of the bed bugs coming in contact with the pesticides.

Report Bed bugs Exterminator : Smithereen Chicago

By S
Source :

I am in the middle of fighting bedbugs right now, and I’ll post my story to that section later today, but I wanted to respond to this call for PCO (Pest Control Operator) recommendations.

We are using Smithereen, a PCO in Chicago, and I have both good and bad things to say. Mostly good.

Good: they gave us a very extensive “Bed Bug Protocol,” with about 12 steps for the tenant to do. They are strict, and say that if we don’t do these things prior to them arriving, they won’t treat. (This is motivating - you want them to treat, so you follow all their instructions!) The steps include things like washing and bagging your clothes, clearing clutter and vacuuming - no chemicals to spray or anything outrageous.

Good: they charge $125 an hour, or $75 an hour for us since our building is a customer. These prices seemed middle-of-the-road as compared to others.

Good: they recently began forming a ‘bed bug team,’ and have been getting new training and hiring new people.

Good: the last guy who came spent 2 hours, pulled carpet up around the edges of the room, tore open the fabric on the underside of the box spring, turned furniture upside down, and generally did a very thorough job.

Bad: we have had 3 visits, from 3 different people from Smithereen. The last time I spoke to their main office, they admitted that the inconsistency wasn’t working out, and that they were going to start dedicating people to clients. I’m glad they’ve realized the problem. But it’s frustrating because it’s like the first two guys were a waste of time and money - we had to explain the whole story all over again, and they didn’t know the history. Plus they were probably repeating each other’s work. Now, though, we have a third guy, and we are hoping he stays dedicated for any future visits.

Unsure if good or bad: they give no guarantee. They had a 2-page ‘bed bug contract,’ where they detail the service they will provide, on an ongoing basis, until the bedbugs are gone. They specify the hourly rate and had us sign it. This seems responsible, to not guarantee anything, but I kinda wish they could inspire more confidence. So I’m willing to try a new Chicago PCO. Anyone in Chicago have recommendations? Or, does Smithereen sound like they are doing things right?

Help me escape my bed bug hell.

This Question & Answer From Ask MetaFilte
I hope it might have a good information for you.

Help me escape my bed bug hell.

I have been dealing with a bed bug infestation for about a year and a half. It is a nightmare that has been going on for too long. Although it's a minor infestation, no matter how many times my place is treated/vacummed/sprayed etc. it doesn't go away...the bugs probably travel from apartment to apartment in my building. I've gotten to the point where I just want to move. However, I want to make sure I do it right.

THE PLAN: To rent a new apartment and put every single thing I own into storage. Since I live in the northeast, if I move during the dead of winter and store things in an unheated storage unit, I am expecting that the cold will kill the bugs and the eggs.

For the first month all I will bring to the new place will be a brand new bed and clothes that have been freshly washed in hot water. Then after an adequate amount of exposure to below-freezing temps, I will bring the rest of my stuff out of storage and into the new place. The question is—how long is adequate?

I cannot find any hard & fast information online about exactly how long it takes to freeze the bugs and their eggs to death. I am *terrified* to take these critters to a new apartment. The good thing is that since my apartment has been treated so often, if anything the infestation is very I'm hoping I only have to worry about a few bugs trying to hitch a ride to my new place. But if I don't do this right, I could bring them along. Has anyone who’s had this problem successfully moved to a new place without these critters along? What are your thoughts?

by WCityMike

To clarify, your question is specifically how long does it take for exposure to cold to kill bed bugs? I think you would need to leave all belongings in below-freezing temperatures that were consistently below freezing for a number of days. I am not sure that is a situation you can easily do, although perhaps you can if you move during the worst of a northeast winter.

An exterminator sprayed my apartment, and told me the poisons would remain active for six to eight weeks. I moved within that timeframe and while I do not want to say that I got rid of them (it's become a superstitious thing with me), I will say that I have not seen any live bed bugs since my move. In my case, I tried my best to move long enough from the spray date that it had time enough to kill everything, but not far away that a fresh infestation had time to take hold.

By Sara Anne

I threw a lot of stuff away, particularly wooden furniture, as wood is the preferred egg-laying surface of bed bugs. Keep in mind that bed bugs can live for a whole year without a meal. I stored most things that I kept in an unheated garage for a year, and it seems to have worked.
If I were you I'd buy a new bed, and wash all your clothes and linens in the hottest possible water before allowing them in the new place.
Sorry you're going through this. I had a similar situation, and it made me feel crazy, verging on paranoid, like I'd never escape them.

Bed Bug Case

Judge Bedford's Decision on the Bedbug Case

Besides the mattress requiring re-inflation at least once during the night, the mattress was unacceptable as bedbugs still preyed upon his skin. Finally, since mid-September 2004, Respondent has been sleeping on a metal cot with a wire mesh covering (Respondent Exhibit "D"). This appeared to stop the biting of the bedbugs, but as demonstrated in the court room no real comfort was possible in this less than six foot metal cot.
For the period July 2003 through December 2003 Respondent saw bed bugs on a regular basis. Respondent found bedbugs on his couch as late as December 2003. Respondent testified that he threw out a couch containing bed bug nests, an armoire, a shelf, books, drapes, towels, linens and clothes. Respondent testified that threw out everything except family heirlooms. "

Read More

Thursday, October 4, 2007

Bed bugs push resident to sleep outside

About bed bugs
Bed bugs are wing-less, red-brown, oval-shaped insects that feed off the blood of humans. They are seven millimetres long and live from four to 12 months. A female can lay between 200 and 400 pinhead-sized eggs during its lifetime. The eggs hatch in 10 days. They feed at night and by day live in cracks and crevasses of furniture. There is no evidence that they carry disease harmful to humans. Their itchy bites resemble those of mosquitos or fleas.
Source: Windsor-Essex County Health Unit

Bed bugs push resident to sleep outside

Doug Williamson, The Windsor Star
Published: Wednesday, September 19, 2007

For three weeks John Fontaine has been sleeping on his balcony but not because it's warm inside.

Fontaine's apartment at 920 Ouellette Ave. is infested with bed bugs, as are other apartments in the building owned by the Windsor-Essex County Housing Corporation.

"They've spread through the building," the 62-year-old cab driver said Wednesday. "I've been sleeping on my balcony - I've been bitten enough."

Kari Schofield, communications officer for the housing corporation, said Fontaine's apartment would have been sprayed immediately had they known he was sleeping on the balcony.

"If we heard somebody was sleeping on a balcony for three weeks we would definitely be there," Schofield said. "I'm sorry to hear that."

Fontaine said the problem surfaced several months ago when management posted a noticed advising tenants to stay out of the disposal room where refuse and old furniture is put handled. He said he started noticing the odd insect in his apartment six weeks ago, but didn't realize they were bed bugs until Labour Day weekend when he spoke to someone who told him they were in the building.

"That's when I put two and two together," Fontaine said. Besides himself, his eight-year-old daughter has also been bitten when she spends time with him, he said.

He said spraying has begun in the building, and his eighth-floor apartment is on the list. He also said he informed housing corporation staff of the bed bug problem the day after Labour Day, and on Sept. 13 he was notified his apartment was on the spray list.

"This is serious, man."

Bed bugs are a problem in several city apartment buildings, said Deb Bennett, director of health protection for the Windsor-Essex County Health Unit.

"We haven't seen it decrease for the last little while," she said, adding the health unit does not consider the local infestation to be an outbreak.

"Once they are established it's very difficult to remediate that."

Schofield said a presentation was made to tenants several weeks ago on bed bugs and cockroaches, but said it is a very difficult problem to get rid of. If a unit is sprayed and clean and someone with bed bugs walks into it, the problem re-occurs, she said. The corporation's Glengarry units are also experiencing the problem, which is compounded by the fact some tenants are old, disabled or have mental health issues and may not be able to keep their units clean enough, or prepare them properly for complete spraying.

"I can totally understand how these tenants are getting frustrated," Schofield said, adding that a task force has been formed to deal with the issue of infestation.

Fontaine said he works long days and was not aware that any such educational sessions were offered.

Besides spraying, Bennett said, people must wash bedding and thoroughly vacuum crevasses in furniture and mattresses where the blood-sucking bed bugs like to hide out. Although more of a nuisance than anything else, their itchy bites can result in infection if the skin is broken during scratching, she said.

"When you have a lot of people, everybody has to practice that ... or the problem does not go away."

Fontaine said he keeps his apartment clean and is waiting for the spraying to take place. He thinks he may be able to salvage his mattress but doesn't know about the box spring.

And in the meantime, he said: "I'll be on the balcony again." or 519-255-5777, ext. 699

Source : The Windsor Star

Bed bugs, Insects, and Hepatitis B


Hepatitis B virus may be transmitted in two main ways. The first is by blood and some plasma derivatives, and by any procedure in which the skin or mucosa is penetrated by inadequately sterilised contaminated needles and instruments. Known modes of transmission of hepatitis B include tattooing, acupuncture, piercing of the ear and nose, scarification, ritual operations, and blood letting. The second main method of spread occurs non-parenterally, by intimate contact and by the sexual route. Both of these latter possibilities have been recognised more recently, but we now know that this list does not exhaust the epidemiological propensities of this infection: is, for instance, hepatitis B spread by mosquitoes and other blood-sucking arthropods, particularly in hot climates ? This
possibility has been studied for several years, but the results have been conflicting.[1] Hepatitis B surface antigen, a marker of the virus,[2] has been detected in several species of mosquitoes trapped in the wild or fed artificially on infected blood. Even
so, no convincing evidence has been obtained of either replication of the virus or persistence of the antigen in the

Bed bugs, on the other hand, live more intimately with man than mosquitoes, feed on blood, and could transfer blood and hepatitis B virus from one occupant of a bed to another. Indeed, hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in one of 18 pools of engorged bed bugs (species Cimex hemipterus) collected from brothels in the Ivory Coast.[3] In a laboratory
study two species of bed bugs-the common bed bug, C lectularius, and Rhodinus prolixus from South America-were fed artificially on blood from a patient with acute hepatitis B.[4] The surface antigen remained detectable in the bugs for over four weeks, and juvenile bugs fed on the antigen when in the fourth or fifth instar stage still retained it after moulting-the time when bugs usually start to search for a host and to refeed. In another study,[5] bed bugs of the species C hemipterus were collected on several separate occasions from bedding in village huts in Senegal. Hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in engorged and unengorged nymph and adult bed bugs, as well as in bugs kept alive without a blood meal for 30 days. Moreover, e antigen (a marker of infectivity of hepatitis B virus [2]) was found in one engorged and one unengorged bed bug.

Hence we might reasonably deduce that bed bugs feeding on the occupants of the same bed could increase the risk of hepatitis B infection. Blood-sucking bed bugs can regurgitate virus, and it might be present in their saliva; while two other modes of transmission of the virus might be by killing the insect during feeding, and by faecal extrusion of the unaltered virus by the bug after a meal of blood. By themselves these observations are insufficient evidence for accepting the bed bug as a vector of hepatitis B virus, but Jupp and McElligott [6] have now taken the story a step further. A colony of C lectularius was fed on blood containing hepatitis B surface antigen. Again, there was no evidence that the virus replicated in the bugs: the antigen persisted after one moult only (transstadial transmission) and it was not transmitted transovarially. Nevertheless, antigen was transmitted by adult bugs through a membrane into three out of 35 cannisters of antigen-negative blood and, as judged by the acquisition of hepatitis B surface antibody, to a rabbit by adult bugs and to two out of 10 guinea-pigs on which antigen-positive fourth and fifth nymphal instars had fed.

These findings indicate that bed bugs can transmit hepatitis B mechanically to non-permissive hosts, and it is reasonable to assume that transmission rates to susceptible primates might be high. Hence the question of transmission of hepatitis B by blood-sucking insects merits further investigation, especially since we could at least control this type of spread of this important infection.

[1] Viral Hepatitis, World Health Organisation Technical Report Series, No 570. Geneva, World Health Organisation, 1975.
[2] Zuckerman, A J, British Medical Journal, 1979, 2, 84.
[3] Brotman, B, Prince, A M, and Godfrey, H R, Lancet, 1973, 1, 1305.
[4] Newkirk, M M, Downe, A E R, and Simon, J B, Gastroenterology, 1975, 69, 982.
[5] Wills, W, et al, Lancet, 1977, 2, 217.
[6] Jupp, P G, and McElligott, S E, South African Medical-Journal, 1979, 2,54.

Wednesday, October 3, 2007

Modify the bed for anti bed bugs.

If you bed have legs and can move, you can modify your bed for anti-bed bugs. First rid a bed bugs with vacuum, steam clean or wash bed in hot water, Next you will move your bed out of the wall and get a plastic tupperware style containers for each of the bed legs and larger containers that the smaller, Put the bed legs into the small containers, put these into the bigger containers , fill the gap between them with car engine oil or mineral oil. It can protect you from a bed bugs when you sleep at night.

Pets and Bed Bugs?

If you discover a bed bugs in your abode, and you will get rid of bed bugs (By yourself or bed bugs exterminator). But you have the pets , Will you need to treat the pets for bed bugs?

Good news bed bugs do not attach themselves to pets you no need to treat them.
Because a bed bugs like to feed on humans (Good news or bad news), bed bugs will feed on pets only they starve for human blood. and a bed bugs live in dark areas, they come out to feed your blood at night.

Monday, October 1, 2007

Where Are Bed bugs Live .

Bed bugs can transport in your clothing, new furniture and individuals as they can travel. Bed Bugs are common in apartment, hotels, motels and areas that have high rates of tourism and travel. The bed bugs are small enough to go undetected in personal belongings and the even smaller eggs stick to almost anything.

If Bed bugs settle into a dwelling, they can spread from area to area. Although Bed Bugs are commonly found in the seams, tufts and crevices of mattresses, box springs, frame and headboards, these are not the only locations that they may inhabit. Other common hiding spots include, but are not limited to:

- Upholstered chairs and sofas, especially those which are often slept on
- Nightstands and dressers
- Along and under the edges of wall to wall carpet
- Cracks in molding
- Curtains
- Window and Door Frames
- Wicker Furniture
- Under Loose Wallpaper
- Clothing
- Inside Electronics
- Smoke detectors

Since Bed Bugs feed on blood, cleanliness is not a factor. Anywhere from a ritzy, high priced hotel to a homeless shelter can be at risk for an infestation.

Sunday, September 30, 2007

Bed Bugs Biology

Bed Bugs Biology (Reference : )

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Heteroptera
Family: Cimicidae

Genera & Species
Genus Cimex
- Cimex lectularius
- Cimex hemipterus (C. rotundatus)
- Cimex pilosellus
- Cimex pipistrella
Genus Leptocimex
- Leptocimex boueti
Genus Haematosiphon
- Haematosiphon inodora
Genus Oeciacus
- Oeciacus hirudinis
- Oeciacus vicarius

Two species of bedbug feed on humans: Cimex lectularius or common bed bugs which occurs in most parts of the world because they are the best adapted to human environments, and Cimex hemipterus or tropical bed bugs which occurs mainly in tropical countries.

Adult bed bugs are about 1/4 inch in length, oval and shaped body, reddish brown (dark brown after feed blood) and wing-less. Hatchling bed bugs are lighter color and become darker when growing.

Bed Bugs Life Cycle There are three stages in the bed bugs life cycle
bed bugs egg > 5 nymphal > adult bed bugs More About Bed Bugs Life Cycle

Bed Bug Picture : Adult Bed Bugs

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

How to reduce bed bugs in your home

Bed bugs are reddish brown or black, bed bugs come out at night to feed humans blood . Bed bugs are find they host by sweat odors , heat and CO2 (Human breath). bed bugs usually not feed blood again for a week or more, but bed bugs can live without feeding more than a year .

How to reduce bed bugs

- Don't use a ripped mattress because bed bugs live in a ripped mattress.
- If your furniture, floor board and base board have a bed bugs clue (Bed bugs molted skin, Bed bugs eggs or eggshells and bed bug excrement [Bed Bugs Picture 1]) , you must extermination a bed bugs or replace with new item.
- Usually launder your sleepwear and clothing regularly to remove a bed bugs.
- Use vacuum, steam clean ,wash bedding in hot water or replace your bedding and carpets.
- Vacuum, steam clean, or replace carpets.
- Repair all crack in floors and walls, because bed bugscan hide during the day in that crack.
- Use a Zippered mattress.
- Use citrus oil or pyrethrin base product treat areas where bed bugs hide to reduce bed bugs population.

Bed Bugs Picture 1 : Bed Bugs Clue

Herbs And Bed Bugs Treatments

Herbs good way to treat bed bugs in your home. It's natural treatments to get rid a bed bugs and allay a bed bugs bites.

Herbs to rid a bed bugs.
Many of
herbs can rid a bed bugs Black Walnut , Cayenne, Garlic , Mint , Lavender, Cilantro,Rosemary, Thyme, Clove.

Herbs to treatments a bed bugs bites.
you can use variety herbs to treatments a bed bugs bites. include tea tree , lavender and chamomile , make an oil or spray to treatments a bed bugs bites.

You can find and blend it by yourself or use the natural bed bugs product for your family health and a good environment.

Example Natural Bed Bugs Bites Treatments Salves
This product for itch relief from bed bugs bites.

Bed Bugs Bites Treatments Salves Contains: Olive Oil Extracts of Organic Blood Root, Chaga Mushroom, Yellow Dock Root, Calendula & Red Clover Flower, Chaparral Leaf , Sheep Sorrel Leaf & Flower, Galangal Root, Zinc Chloride, Essential Oils of Evening Primrose, Neem & Tea Tree, Flower & Gem Essences.

Organic Blood Root is an indigenous Native American Plant used for most skin conditions, to stimulate growth of healthy tissue, clear up infection, and bring warmth and stimulation to the area.
Galangal Root is an aromatic root related to ginger and popularly used in Thai cooking. It has been shown to have antibacterial actions.
Red Clover Flower is a blood purifier that is often used on the skin to dissolve deposits, tumors, remove toxic waste, reduce swelling and aid in tissue repair.
Chaparral is a common desert herb well known as an anticancer botanical. Itʼs used to stimulate growth of healthy cells, and elimination of toxins.
Chaga Mushroom is an anti-cancer remedy that grows in the eastern United States; used as a tonic, pain reliever and blood cleanser.
Calendula Flower is beneficial and soothing for all skin conditions.
Yellow Dock Root, high in natural minerals, is used as a detoxicant to reduce tumors, infections, and skin ulcers.
Sheep Sorrel Leaf & Flower, is an ingredient in the popular anti-cancer, blood cleansing formula designed by Renee Caisse.
Zinc Chloride is a very potent chemical used to help the herbs penetrate deeper into the tissues.
Evening Primrose Oil is high in Essential fatty acids & reduces prostaglandin levels, which are helpful in treating cancer growth.
Neem Oil is an ancient remedy useful for skin cancers and tumors when used topically in creams or salves.
Tea Tree Oil is a powerful, medicinal oil similar to eucalyptus andis used worldwide for its anti-viral, fungal, and bacterial properties.

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

Bed Bugs Bites Or Mosquito.

Symptom of Bed bugs bites alike mosquito bites , Small welt or red bump on the skin, itch, painless (in some case can develop to painful), they are hardly to compare. however bed bugs usually bites when you sleep, If you have itch and red bump, presumably you have got bites by a bed bugs.

Bed bugs molted skin, Bed bugs eggs or eggshells and bed bug excrement (Small dark spot) in your mattress are the first clue that bed bugs are present, If you have got bites at night during sleep.

Bed Bugs Picture : Bed Bugs Bites

Bed Bugs Picture : Bed Bugs EggShells

Bed Bugs Picture : Bed Bugs Clue

Monday, September 24, 2007

Bed Bug Treatment : bed bugs extermination service?

There are several of bed bugs Insecticide and spray product, you can rid bed bugs by yourself , but if a bed bugs are hardy treating insects ,A mistreatment could cause a population to migrate, split into small populations, or even result in pesticide resistance. And some bed bugs treatment product can't used on mattresses.(Don't use bed bugs treatment product on your mattress, If no guarantee from the manufacturer)

If you think you cannot handle on your own you will contacting a professional of bed bugs extermination service, they can specifically address the issue of bed bugs and they use steam clean and vacuum, it low impact insecticide.

How to select bed bugs extermination service.
(Reference :
a) How reputable is the company?
b) Are they a member of the National Pest Management Association or the Canadian Pest Management Association (CPMA)?
c) How experienced are they with bed bug treatments?
d) Is there a contract involved?
e) Is there a guarantee offered?
f) How many treatments does the price include? Most jobs will require a minimum of two treatments (spaced roughly 2 weeks apart).
g) Does the company have insurance?

Bug Bugs Proof Zippered Bedding Encasement [Bed bugs Product]

Bed bugs are particularly found in folds of mattresses , To enjoy good nights and better days when you Sleep a zippered mattress protector is a good way to protect you from bed bugs. After you treated a bed bugs in your mattress, You should encase your mattress with the zippered mattress protector for anti bed bugs covers.

AllerZip Waterproof Bug Bugs Proof Zippered Bedding Encasement

Product Features
- Order by 2:00pm Central for same day FedEx Ground Shipment - Guaranteed Discreet
- Waterproof: Polyurethane film backing repels liquids like urine & sweat on all six sides
- Breathable Barrier Fabric: Guaranteed NOT hot to sleep on. Allows body vapor to breathe through protector.
- Dust Mite & Allergy Barrier: Miracle membrane backing provides a healthy sleep zone for your family.
- Easy to Wash & Use: Machine washable in warm or hot water. Tumble dry on medium heat. Do not bleach or dry clean.

Product Description
Bed bugs and dust mite infestations are serious problems that can cause a variety of health concerns including asthma, eczema and allergies. Aller-Zip mattress and box spring encasements provide an effective barrier to infestation. Because treatments cant reach the core of an already infected mattress and box spring, they usually need to be disposed of - but no longer. Aller-Zip protects your mattress investment and most importantly, your health. Its cotton, terry-cloth fabric toplayer is soft and comfortable under your sheets. Guaranteed against leaks or tears for 2 years or the factory will replace the pad at no cost.

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Travel Safe Bed Bug Spray [Bed bugs Product]

Travel Safe Bedbug Spray : NON-TOXIC Ready to Use Kleen-Free Naturally Travel Size Bed Bug and Insect Spray

Bed Bug and Insect Spray

ORDER Bedbugs Spray 8oz ON AMAZON.COM
ORDER Bedbugs Spray 3oz On AMAZON.COM

Product Features

- Travel Size, Travel Safe, Bed Bugs elimination and prevention spray.
- Safe, Non-toxic, Kleen Free.
- Kleen Free Naturally special formula for quick prevention use when traveling worldwide.
- Bed Bugs and other insects are increasingly found infesting hotels, apartments, car seats, theaters.
- A quick spray of this Pre-Mixed solution of Kleen Free and insects and Bed Bugs will not appear.
- All Natural, Organic and safe around children pets and can be used frequently without worries.

Product Description
Travel Safe Bedbug Spray comes in a travel size (3oz) version that can be carried on planes, there also is an 8oz version that can be packed in luggage safely. Spray your bed in the hotel when you arrive and when it's time to go to bed any Bed Bugs and other insects that may be there will be eliminated. Kleen Free Naturally is an organic natural enzyme solution that kills insects on contact without any toxic chemical pesticides or insecticides. Kleen Free Travel Safe Bedbug Spray can be used safely anywhere when you are traveling and since there are no chemicals it is safe to travel with.

Bed Bug Bites Treatment

Basic Bed Bug Bites Treatment
bed bug bites symptom are usually itchy, you must stop yourself from scratching the welts. you can reduce the itchy feeling with antiseptic soap and apply the welts with a cold compress, the welts will fade in a few days.

Continues Symptom Treatment
If the bed bug bite symptom continues, you may apply local antiseptic lotion or antibiotic cream or ointment. If you have allergic reaction take an corticosteroids and oral antihistamines or see the doctor.